livoniana skeleton

Livoniana multidentata

Livoniana multidentata was described on the the basis of anterior jaw fragments collected from the tidal flats and deltaic deposits of the Guaha Formation (late Givetian, late Middle Devonian or early Frasnian, early Late Devonian) of Latvia and Estonia. Although identified as an elpistostegalian (along with Elpistostege and Panderichthys), the jaws fragments of Livoniana contain a highly derived set of teeth. They also exhibit some characteristics thought to have first occur in two Frasnian tetrapods, Elginerpeton and Obruchevichthys. The Livoniana fossils have led Per Ahlberg to conclude that tetrapods had already differentiated from Elpistostegalids and other lobe-fins during the Middle Devonian.

Associated fauna include heterostracans (Psammolepis spp. and Psammosteus), acanthodians (Devonochus cocinnus, Haplacanthus ehrmanensis and Acanthodes), an arthrodire placoderm (Plourdosteus livonicus), an antiarch placoderm (Asterolepis ornata) and several lobe-fins (Glyptolepis baltica, Crossipterus crassus, Laccognathus panderi, Megadonichthys kurikae, and Panderichthys rhombolepis).

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Books:
Clack, J.A. 2002. Gaining Ground: The Origin and Early Evolution of Tetrapods. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Press.
Scientific Papers
Ahlberg, P.E., E. Luksevics and E. Mark-Kurik. 2000. A near-tetrapod from the Baltic Middle Devonian. Paleontology 43(3): 533-548.

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